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基因编辑作物和传统育种作物有办法区分出来吗? qrcode

2018-08-09

 世界农化网中文网报道: 上月底,欧盟最高法院裁定基因编辑作物为转基因作物,业界一片哗然。之后有读者留言询问目前是否有办法将基因编辑和传统育种作物区分出来,要知道基因编辑可以做到不引进外源基因,最后选育的作物和传统育种基本没什么区别。为此,我们邀请了全球的专家来和世界农化网一起探讨这一问题。我们也希望中国的读者朋友们能参与我们的讨论,欢迎评论留言。

Alejandro Hernández, CropLife Latin America(植保拉美协会)
Imagine you sample the whole shipment right now from a Comercial commodity, in the market there are several varieties that had cross pollinated and between them there is huge genomic differences and they are all mixed in the commodities trade, meaning that you will have billions of grains and consequently billions of possibilities, you add the spontaneous single base pair mutation rate which is be roughly 7×10-9 per bp per generation at least in Arabidopsis and the natural mutation by UV and transposons, and, perhaps you can find the same genome editing mutation, by chance and done by nature. So, sequencing may do the work of detection, but finding the origin of that mutation would be very difficult.
想象一下,你现在从一种商品中抽查整批货物的样品,在市场上有许多品种已经交叉授粉,并且他们之间存在这巨大的基因组差异,他们都混合在商品贸易中,这意味你将面对数十亿的谷物,数十亿的可能性。如果你把自发的单碱基对突变率计算在内,在拟南芥(模式植物)一个世代中基因组每一个碱基发生自然突变(紫外线和转座子)的概率大概为7×10-9,也许基因编辑产生的变化能够在自然发生的变异中找到相同的变异。因此测序也许可能能够检测到突变,但是找到突变的起源将会非常的困难。

Rosa Inés González-Torres, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México(墨西哥国立自治大学)
These have technical difficulties to stablish the differences but it is not impossible (you have to compare the whole genome of both), that is a reason why some governments are analysing the situation. It would be better to trust in the scientific auto-regulation.
尽管在技术上并非不可能区别两者的差异,但是会非常困难(你必须比较两者的全基因组序列)。这也是一些政府评估是否要将基因编辑作物归类为转基因作物的原因。我认为信任科学的自我调节机制会更好。

Mark Gadlage, DuPont Pioneer(杜邦先锋)
Most likely, DNA sequencing will be needed to determine if a specific cultivar, variety, or hybrid was subject to gene editing. In some cases where edits are made and can be found identically in nature from a specific species, it will essentially be up to the companies that are creating gene edited crops to be upfront and honest about which cultivars, varieties, or hybrids were created through the technology.
最有可能的是需要进行DNA测序来确定某一栽培品种、品种或者杂交种是否被基因编辑了。在某些特殊情况下,编辑后的基因也能够在自然界中某些特别的品种中找到,这时候就基本分别不出来了。所以从根本上来说,这将由选育基因编辑作物的公司决定是否告知其选育的栽培品种、品种或者杂交种是否是通过基因编辑技术获得的,这需要这些公司保持正直和诚实。

Ray Shillito, BASF(巴斯夫)
Single base or small deletions are indistinguishable from naturally occurring so no analytical methods cannot distinguish.
单碱基或小的片段缺失在自然界中也会发生,所以分析的方法是无法将两者区分开来的。

Dr.Venkata RamiReddy Sanampudi, Limagrain(利马格兰)
Can not we detect through difference in nucleotide change before and after editing by means of SNP genotyping and other sequence based detection methods?
我们不能够通过SNP基因分型分析或者其他的以测序为基础的检测方法来检测基因编辑前后核苷酸的变化吗?

Fan-Li Chou, USDA(美国农业部)
What would be the impetus for testing? Is the testing due to safety concerns? For compliance?
为什么要进行检测呢?检测的动力是出于安全考虑?还是合规考虑?

小编:由于最近欧盟最高法院裁定基因编辑作物为转基因作物,我想他们之后必须对作物进行检测以确定是否是基因编辑作物。

Fan-Li:
The ECJ ruling is not a positive step for agriculture, that is for sure. However, the European Commission has yet to determine how to implement the ruling. Hopefully the EC will consider science as they move forward. Also, testing is an inefficient and costly way to ensure legal compliance when there is no health or other safety concern that justify the testing.
可以肯定的说,欧盟最高法院的裁定对农业来说不是积极的一步。但是欧盟委员会尚未决定如何执行该裁决。希望欧盟委员会在推进的过程中更多的考虑科学。此外,当没有健康或者其他安全问题来证明检测的必要性时,检测是保证合规一种低效并且昂贵的方法。

Ravi Kumar Tomar, Syngenta(先正达)
By checking genome sequence I think, Researchers can tell more
我觉得可以通过基因组的测序来进行区别,研究人员能告诉我们更多的方法。

Elangovan Mani, Advanta Seeds

Yeah, it’s possible. CRISPR edited plants may have background non-target mutations. But, EMS mutation derived plants will have too many random mutations. With deep genome sequencing, I believe you cannot distinguish CRISPR edited or natural mutation (EMS derived). So, if any variety is protected by IPR, they need to elaborate the breeding methods.
是的,这是可能的。通过基因编辑(CRISPR )的植物可能具有非靶标的突变。但是通过 EMS诱变(传统育种方法的一种)获得的植物会有更多的随机突变。通过深度的基因组测序,我相信你无法区分是基因编辑还是天然突变(EMS诱导突变)。因此任何受到知识产权保护的品种,品种所有人(公司)需要详细说明育种的方法。

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